Bond Issuances: What is it, How does it work?


Corporations seek capital for several reasons, including the need to boost operating efficiencies, pay off debts, buy fixed assets or other businesses, or repurchase their stock. Companies targeting a new issuance must additionally take into account the following considerations: –

  • Security types to be issued.
  • The issue price, underwriting fee, and coupon rate
  • Availability of the share to the institutional and retail investors.

The Method of Offering

  • Public Offerings

The corporation and dealer come to a preliminary agreement in a public offering to establish whether the dealer will operate as an agent or as the underwriter and principal of the securities. The dealer’s commission (if acting as agent) or the spread between the suggested offering price and the dealer’s cost price is established early in the negotiating process between the two parties. The offering price and other parameters are usually not finalized until just before the public offering date. The market situation at the time of the issuance determines the pricing of the issue and the actual volume of securities issued.

  • Private Placement

The entire issue is sold to one or several major institutional investors in a private placement. Banks, mutual fund firms, insurance companies, and pension funds are among the significant investors sought by the issuer. Placements are generally provided to institutional and knowledgeable investors. Private placements are frequently revealed after they have taken place, typically through advertisements in the financial press. 


For fixed-income trading, India has a centralised clearing platform. In 2001, the Clearing Corporation of India (CCIL) provided complete clearing and settlement for money, government securities, and foreign exchange transactions. CCIL was established to increase transaction settlement efficiency and protect the financial system from shocks caused by operations-related concerns. The organisation also engages in related activities that aid in broadening and deepening the country’s money, debt, and foreign currency markets.

  • The Reserve Bank of India established and owns the Negotiated Dealing System (NDS), which is run by CCIL and is where the government securities are traded on the secondary market.
  • The NDS-CALL electronic trading platform for trading in call money has also originated and is currently managed by CCIL. It has also created the NDS-Auction module for the RBI’s T-bills auction.
  • CCIL ensures that all trades are settled, removing the risk of a counterparty. It keeps a settlement guarantee fund (SGF) made up of margin contributions from each participant with the CCIL, as the counterparty to both buyer and seller.

Primary dealers, banks (public, private, and international), insurance companies, pension funds, mutual funds, foreign portfolio investments . And to a lesser extent, retail investors are the significant participants in India’s secondary market. In both the primary and secondary markets, the Employees Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO) is a major buyer of G-Secs. Trades on the NDS-OM platform are settled on a trade-date-plus-one-business-day (T+1) basis. However, intra-day trading accounts for the majority of trade activity.


SMEST is a unique bootstrapped start-up to digitize debt market functions and educate ordinary investors to encourage participation. Our team works relentlessly to boost the client experience by being committed to serving . Them via Ask-Smest even after working hours. The purpose of SMEST is to enhance debt market participation, particularly among individual investors who are unfamiliar with the bond market.

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